It’s one of the latest innovations in wireless communication that makes use of the diversity effect of the transmitter/source, the receiver/destination or both.
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What is the diversity effect?
It involves the transmission and/or reception of different radio frequency waves in order to improve data speed while also reducing the error rate.
Smart antennas are now common in communications
They work while the receiver arrays with smart signals are processing algorithms that can distinguish a spatial signal signature.
They are effective at identifying the arrival or direction of a specific signal, and then using it to form beams that allow the array to find or track the beam of an antenna on a target.
This system allows smart antennas to allow multiple signals for handling in their array without any of the signals interfering with one another.
Just to give you an example, one antenna is used at the transmitter in a traditional wireless communication, and another antenna is also being used at the receiver, a system called single input, single output (SISO).
However, it is vulnerable to issues due to the different effects. For example, an issue can occur when an electromagnetic field faced obstructions, including canyons, buildings, hills and utility wires, among others.
With the scattered wave fronts, they take different paths in order to get to their destination.
As a result, there is a delayed arrival of the signals, which at this point, are scattered, leading to the cliff effect characterized by a cut out or fading signal along with picket fencing or intermittent reception.
If this problem occurs in digital communication system, it can increase the number of errors while reducing data speed.
Smart Antenna Technologies Get Rid of Multiple Wave Propagation Troubles
There are three major categories, namely – single input, multiple output (SIMO), multiple input, multiple output (MIMO) and multiple input, single output (MISO).
- Only one antenna is used at the source in SIMO while at least two antennas are used.
- In the MIMO technology, different antennas are used at the transmitter and receiver.
- At least two antennas are used at the source while only one at the receiver in MISO technology.
What are the advantages of a smart antenna system? There are numerous advantages of this system that include,
- Economy for users
- Multiple channeling in a spatial dimension
- Improved wireless system performance
- Enhanced signal quality, coverage and capacity
On the downsides, smart antenna systems are larger in size than traditional antennas, complex in design and expensive.
Applications of smart antenna systems
When it comes to applications, a smart antenna technology is used in satellite systems and efficient in wireless and cellular networks.
It can also be used to countermeasure electronic jamming during an electronic warfare and useful in radars.
In addition, a smart antenna can deliver a higher gain for the specific signal in the interest’s direction.
On the other hand, a phased array smart antenna can also reduce interference probability using a narrower beam while the adaptive array is adjusting the beam pattern in order to suppress the interference.
A smart antenna can also help in multipath mitigation that can support the three antenna diversity types.
Smart antenna technology has its promising potentials in improving communication and delivering performance to a wide range of applications. Overall, a smart antenna technology can overcome the capacity limits of communication for devices.
Let’s stay tuned for the latest in smart antenna technology. What do you think is the future of this system? Tell us in the comments.